‘向’ vs ‘对’

‘向’ and ‘对’ can both be used to indicate the object of an action.

 

Similarities:

The verb after ‘向’ and ‘对’ can express body movements.

 

向/对 + 动作的对象 + 具体动词

(向/对 + The object of action + Concrete verbs)

 

e.g.

1. 张老师向/对小明点了点头。

Mr Zhang nodded to Xiao Ming

2. 他向/对我笑了笑。

He smiled at me.

 

 

The verbs after ‘向’ and ‘对’ can also comprise the meaning of ‘to express’.

 

e.g.

3. 我们要向/对他表示感谢。

We have to express our gratitude to him.

4. 我们向/对他们表示了祝贺。

We congratulated them.

 

 

Differences:

However, ‘’ doesn’t have ‘from where’ this usage. For instance, you can only say ‘昨天我向小明借了一本书()’, but cannot say ‘昨天我对小明借了一本书(x)’(I borrowed a book from Xiao Ming yesterday).

In addition, ‘对’ can also be used to indicate treatments, in other words, to show the relations between people, collective, and things. For example, 他对我很热情 (He is warm to me.), ‘向’ cannot be used here.

 

 

Summary:

 

Indicate directions

Indicate objects

Indicate treatment

Body movements

From where

Expression

×

×

×

 

 

Pinyin:

  • 1. Zhāng lǎoshi xiàng/duì Xiǎomíng diǎn le diǎn tóu.
  • 2. Tā xiàng/duì wǒ xiào le xiào.
  • 3. Wǒmen yào xiàng/duì tā biǎoshì gǎnxiè.
  • 4. Wǒmen xiàng/duì tāmen biǎoshì le zhùhè.
  • 5. Zuótiān wǒ xiàng Xiǎomíng jièle yìběn shū.
  • 6. Tā duì wǒ hěn rèqíng.
Ling

Ling

Hi, I’m Ling, a Chinese tutor and a language learning amateur. I create this blog with a goal to help Mandarin learners and Chinese culture lovers to study and know about this language by self-learning. Welcome to visit me from time to time and give me your precious advice! Thank you! 😛

2 Comments

  1. 你好Ling,

    我不太清楚。 你说了“ 他对我很热情“” 然后说在这里不能用”对。 但是我觉得你写错了?

    谢谢

    Gage

    1. 您好,Gage!抱歉,这么晚回复您。啊,这里我写错了……应该是‘向’不能用在这里。 非常抱歉,我没有检查仔细!我下次会注意!
      谢谢您的留言,非常感谢!🙏🙏🙏

Leave a Response