First, let me explain to you what is a Ba-sentence?
As we all know, a basic sentence in Mandarin is formed like Subject + Verb + Object, same as in English. However, in a Ba-sentence, the object is placed before the verb.
So, why we need to learn this structure: because in Chinese sometimes we cannot directly put an object right after a verb, we have to put the object before the verb with the help of 把.
Here are some useful ba-sentence patterns:
A. Basic 把 Sentence Structure:
Subject + 把(bǎ) + Object + Verb + Other elements
The usage of this type sentence is to request or order someone to do something. Note that in a Ba-sentence, the subject and the object should be specified or known to the speaker and the listener.
Bāng wǒ bǎ zhèběn shū huán le ba
Help me return this book
Nǐ bǎ dēng guān le ba
(you) Turn off the lights
Nǐ bǎ niú nǎi hē le
(you) Drink the milk
B. 把 Sentences with Two Objects
Pattern 1 : Subject + 把(bǎ) + Object + 给(gěi) + sb.
Bǎ nǐ de hù zhào gěi wǒ
Give me your passport
Bǎ nǐ de shǒu jī gěi tā
Give him your cell phone
If the ower of an object has changed to another person, in this case, we should use the pattern:
Pattern 2 : Subject + 把(bǎ) + Object + Verb + 给(gěi) + sb.
Xuéshēng bǎ lǐwù sònggěi lǎoshī
Students send the gifts to teachers
Jīntiān zǎoshàng, tā yǐ jīng bǎ qián huán gěi wǒ le
He has given me back the money this morning
Qǐng bǎ yán ná gěi wǒ
Please pass me the salt
*Some common verbs such as ‘送'(sòng)-to give as a present, ‘还'(huán)-to return, ‘拿'(ná)-to take, ‘借'(jiè)-to borrow, ‘带'(dài)-to bring, ‘递'(dì)-to pass, ‘仍'(rēng)-to throw,…
C. 把 Sentences with Locations
This type of be-sentence is often used to indicate the change of the location of the person or thing.
Subject + 把 + Object + Verb + 在/到 + Location
Wǒ yǐjīng bǎ wǎn fàng zài zhuōzi shàng le
I’ve already put the bowls on the table
Xiǎowáng hái méi bǎ kèrén sòng dào jīchǎng
Xiaowang has not sent the guests to the airport yet
Bǎ chē kāi dào lóu xià
Drive the car to downstairs
D. 把 Sentences with a Resultative/Directional Complement
This type of Ba-sentence is used to show an action which is done by a specified person or thing and has brought a result or has changed the position of the person or thing.
Subject + 把(bǎ) + Object + Verb + Complement of result/direction
Wǒ bǎ yīfú xǐ gānjìng le
I washed my clothes (and they are clean now)
Māma bǎ fàn zuò hǎo le
Mother has finished cooking dinner.
Qǐng bǎ qiān bǐ ná chūlái
Please take out pencils
Bǎ shǒujī fàng hǎo
Put the phones away